Before we get into specific terpenes, let us understand what the term broadly means. Terpenes are any of those aromatic oils or resins produced by plants. They are the ones that give the plants or the other parts their particular smell or taste. Though their function has not been thoroughly investigated it is understood that most plants produce these for two opposite effects. Either to attract specific insects that help in pollination or to repel animals which may be preying on these plants. Let us not get into too many specifics. Our aim here is to understand one type of terpene and how to source it.
More than 100 types of tarpenes have been identified. Each of these have their unique smell and taste. They are also found to be effective in a wide range of ailments like asthma, muscle-tension, breast cancer and stress.
Like other plants cannabis too produces terpenes. The terpenes are produced by the same glands that produce the cannabinoids that give the user the effect he needs – whether it is medicinal or for the high that it gives. But terpenes don’t have the same effect as the cannabinoids – or more commonly the chemicals that give you the high. They are known to add to the effect of the cannabinoids when combined with them. But that is not their main function.
Different strains of cannabis have different aroma and taste. Wonder what causes this? It is the kind of terpene that is found in these plants. They also differ in what effect they have on our health. Some have anti-bacterial effect while others have pain-relieving ability.
There is definitely an increase in interest on this chemical. When people buy cannabis for that high, they are not just buying them. They are also buying terpenes which will change the way their cannabis smells or tastes. This also adds to the way their brains feel that rush. Different terpenes also give different effects by combining with the cannabinoids. This is another reason why terpenes are mentioned along with cannabis. So, the next time you buy cannabis get your terpenes too.
Knowing about the terpenes could also help you in a better understanding of the medicinal effects of the weed you smoke.
Where do we buy genuine terpenes? In many cases people who purchased from many buyers have reported that the product they got were not genuine. How do you ensure that you get the real stuff and not something being sold in the name of terpenes?
When it comes to purchase of terpenes the only name to trust is Mr. Terps.
Mr. Terps has been selling terpenes for over 30 years. They have strived to maintain the quality consistently and to ensure complete satisfaction to their customers. They assure originality and genuineness of the product.
Get your cannabis Terpenes only from Mr. Terps. This way you are assured that the product you receive is of the best quality.
Learn about terpenes and terpenoids, and how they play a significant role in the potential therapeutic applications of cannabis.
Terpenes and terpenoids are the compounds in cannabis that give the plants and their flowers their aromatic diversity and distinct flavors. They’re essential oils that are secreted in cannabis flower’s sticky resin glands, where cannabinoids like cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are also produced.
While regular cannabis consumers take note of terpenes and terpenoids primarily because of their pungent, aromatic distinctions, the compounds offer more than an intense bouquet. According to a 2001 report from renowned researcher Dr. Ethan Russo, terpenes have wide-ranging therapeutic attributes.
Over 200 different terpenes and terpenoids have so far been identified in the cannabis plant, although they’re not unique to cannabis. They exist throughout the botanical world and are found in many other plants, herbs, and fruits. Common in the human diet, terpenes arerecognized as safe to consume by the United States Food and Drug Administration.
Terpenes and Terpenoids: What’s the Difference?
Terpenes and terpenoids are essentially one in the same and the two terms are often used interchangeably. The difference between the two is that terpenes are organic hydrocarbons, while terpenoids contain additional atoms that have been altered during a process called oxidation, which occurs once cannabis has been dried and cured.
To simplify, think of terpenes as “wet” and terpenoids as “dried out.”
Why Terpenes and Terpenoids are Important
Like cannabinoids, terpenes bind to receptors in the brain to stimulate various effects and affect the chemical output of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. Among thewide-ranging effects of terpenes that researchers have so far discovered include:
The entourage effect, introduced in 1998 by Israeli researchers Shimon Ben-Shabat and Raphael Mechoulam, maintains that all the natural constituents found in cannabis – terpenes, cannabinoids, and natural other compounds – work together synergistically to magnify their beneficial properties. The theory suggests that isolated cannabis compounds aren’t as effective as when all the natural constituents work together harmoniously.
Most Common Terpenes Found in Cannabis
Each strain of cannabis has a unique terpene profile, producing its own distinct line-up and concentration of terpenes. Here’s a look at five terpenes that occur most commonly in the greatest concentrations in cannabis.
Described as having a musky, clove, or earthy aroma, myrcene is the most abundantterpene produced by cannabis, sometimes composing up to 50 percent of the plant’s terpene volume. Myrcene, or β-myrcene, produces what is considered the stereotypical smell of cannabis.
When myrcene levels in cannabis are high, they’re responsible for eliciting the common “couch-lock” euphoric effect, or a strong sense of sedation. A 2014 study also found evidence that myrcene has anti-ulcer properties.
Myrcene is commonly found in other plants such as:
Cannabis varieties that are high in the terpene limonene have a strong citrusy smell like orange or lime. Highly absorbed by inhalation, limonene promotes a general uplift in attitude and mood, and it assists in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin.
According to WebMD, limonene may block cancer-forming chemicals and kill cancer cells, though more research is still needed. Limonene is also found in:
The peels of citrus fruits
There are actually two types of the terpene pinene — alpha and beta. The alpha variety, found in pine woods and balsamic resin, produces a scent of pine needles or fir. The beta type, found in a variety of herbs, smells like dill, parsley, rosemary, or basil.
Brewers like to describe super-hoppy IPAs the way that they might talk about marijuana: “dank,” “resinous,” “sticky.” It makes sense, after all: Both cannabis (pot) and Humulus lupulus (hops) are members of the Cannabaceae family of flowering plants, and both rely on compounds called terpenes to provide their essential flavors and aromas.
While breweries have tried to mimic the flavors of marijuana in beer – see Lagunitas’s the Waldos, DC Brau’s Smells Like Freedom and Oskar Blues’s Pinner Throwback IPA – few have actually attempted to brew with marijuana extracts.
Last week, Lagunitas debuted SuperCritical, an IPA made with marijuana terpenes provided by CannaCraft, a California company that makes cannabis vape cartridges called AbsoluteXtracts.
“These are created using a combination of dozens of terpenes that we isolate and refine during cannabis extraction, and they are what give our strains their unique flavor and sensory profiles,” says Kial Long, the vice president of marketing for AbsoluteXtracts.
Long says a number of terpene blends were prepared “with the Lagunitas-style taste in mind,” and Lagunitas brewer Jeremy Marshall selected one that was a mix of the Blue Dream and Girl Scout Cookies strains, and then picked six different kinds of hops, including Summit, Tomahawk and Zeus, to match and balance the flavors of the cannabis terpenes.
In return, Lagunitas, which infamously had its license suspended by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control in 2005 after an employee was caught rolling a joint at a brewery party, collaborated on a line of vape cartridges flavored with a mix of hop terpenes and cannabis oils.
“We really just wanted to pool our resources to see what we could create,” Long said.
Because SuperCritical is made with the terpenes that AbsoluteXtracts removes from cannabis plants, it doesn’t contain THC, so any pleasant buzz that drinkers might feel comes from the alcohol, not the cannabis. Karen Hamilton, Lagunitas’s director of communications, wrote in an email that the beer is tested in the brewery’s lab, and “lots of people have had the beer, at this point, and NO ONE has experienced any psychotropic effects (to the dismay of some!)”
The beer itself is a dank, odoriferous IPA, checking in at just 6.8 percent alcohol by volume, with grassy flavors, a decent amount of earthy hop bitterness and a noticeably sticky finish. It’s not much different from other IPAs designed to mimic weed’s characteristic flavors, though the taste is slightly greener.
Lagunitas is viewing SuperCritical as an experiment and produced only one batch of 60 barrels, or 120 kegs. Those went to bars across California, primarily in the San Francisco area, by late last week. (A full list is available on the Lagunitas website.) “There may be more SuperCritical coming in the future, and this time to other areas in the U.S.,” Hamilton said.
CBD has just a few mild side effects, and does not affect the major functions of the body.
In recent years, cannabidiol (CBD) has become a popular remedy for many conditionsincluding anxiety, epilepsy, pain, and MS.
CBD is a non-psychoactive compound found in marijuana. Unlike THC, CBD does not cause a euphoric high or mind-altering effects.
CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system, which has far-reaching effects on the whole body. It has antiemetic, anticonvulsant, antipsychotic, and analgesic properties, among many others.
As interest in CBD’s benefits has surged, so has interest in its potential side effects. Overwhelmingly, research suggests that CBD has only a few mild side effects including fatigue, appetite changes, diarrhea, and changes in the metabolism of other drugs.
When compared to other drugs, CBD’s list of side effects is quite short. They are also more common if you’re using a very high dose.
Risks and Side Effects of CBD
Overall, CBD is considered to be well-tolerated in humans, even at high doses or when taken for long periods of time. Unlike THC, CBD does not have any psychoactive side effects.
Most people do not experience side effects from using CBD. Several animal and human studies have reported no side effects of treatment with CBD. However, other studies have reported a few minor side effects that may affect some people.
The most common side effects of CBD include:
Changes in the liver’s ability to process drugs
Other possible side effects:
Worsening of HIV symptoms
Reduction of fertility
CBD can be safely used at high doses without negative effects. Doses of up to 1500mg per day have been reported as safe. For reference, some people benefit from doses as low as 15mg.
Studies show that the lethal dose of CBD is very high. Scientists are not sure of the exact lethal dose of CBD in humans, as there are no known reports of death caused by CBD. A 1981 study found that a dose of 200mg per kg of body weight caused death in rhesus monkeys.
What Do Studies Say?
A 2011 review of 132 scientific studies concluded that CBD has very few side effects and does not majorly impact bodily functions.
Essential bodily functions such as heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, motor functions, psychological function, and gastrointestinal transit were found to be unaffected by CBD.
The major side effects included CBD’s impact on liver metabolism of certain drugs, a possible worsening of HIV symptoms, and a possible impact on fertility.
Another group of researchers reviewed the safety and side effects of CBD in 2017. Many studies on CBD were conducted between 2011 and 2017, so the researchers were able to review an additional 74 articles.
This group of researchers found mild side effects of CBD, including fatigue, diarrhea, and changes in appetite.
Effect on Drug Metabolism
CBD can affect the liver’s ability to process certain drugs and medications.
In a 2011 review, scientists found that CBD was a “potent inhibitor” of liver enzymes involved in drug metabolism.
A class of liver enzymes called cytochrome P450 is involved in metabolizing many drugs. CBD inactivates specific forms of this enzyme, making the liver less effective at processing certain drugs. This is very similar to the way that grapefruits can interact with medications.
This means that if you take any prescription medications, it’s important to talk to your doctor before combining them with CBD.
A 2014 study of medical marijuana users found that patients treated with high-CBD strains experienced fatigue.
However, the marijuana used in the experiment contained some THC, so it is not clear to what extent the drowsiness can be attributed to CBD. THC is known to induce sleepiness.
A 2015 study on CBD’s effectiveness for epilepsy found that tiredness was the most commonly reported side effect of the drug.
Diarrhea was reported as a common side effect of CBD treatment in a 2015 study on CBD for epilepsy.
However, it is not clear whether this side effect is specific to those with epilepsy, as it was found in other studies that CBD does not impact gastrointestinal transit time (which would be shortened in the case of diarrhea).
It’s also important to note that the doses used in the study were extremely high.
A few studies have reported changes in appetite resulting from CBD use.
In a Dutch study from 2014, people who used a high-CBD strain of marijuana reported mild changes in their appetite. However, appetite changes were stronger in those who used a high-THC strain.
Since there was still THC in the high-CBD strain, it’s difficult to tell whether the effects are due to CBD.
Effect on HIV Patients
In a 2011 review, researchers concluded that CBD may worsen the disease progression of HIV. They also found results that suggested it could make it easier to become infected with HIV if exposed to the virus.
The researchers note that some studies found a biphasic effect: a beneficial effect at low doses, and a negative effect at high doses.
However, these side effects only impact those who have been exposed to or infected with the HIV virus.
A 1986 study found that male rats who were exposed to CBD produced 20% less sperm than controls. They also produced significantly fewer live offspring.
Even more interestingly, male offspring of female rats exposed to CBD also produced 20% less sperm, even if they were only exposed in the womb.
Other studies have reported that CBD can impact levels of sex hormones such as including progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol.
Overall, it’s a good idea to avoid the use of drugs, including CBD, if you are trying to conceive.
How To Reduce Side Effects
If you would like to reduce your chances of experiencing side effects from CBD, it’s important to use the correct dose and make sure any medications you are taking do not interact with CBD.
When trying to determine the correct dosage for patients, doctors often use a process called titration. Titration involves slowly increasing the dose until the patient achieves the most relief of symptoms with minimal side effects.
If you are experiencing side effects, you may be using too high of a dose. You can use dose titration to find a dose that works for you, but does not produce side effects.
When it comes to any medication, it’s always better to use the smallest dose that works. Since side effects increase with dosage, a smaller dose means you will have a lower chance of experiencing negative side effects.
It’s also important to talk to your doctor about any drug interactions between CBD and any medications you are currently taking.
CBD can be helpful for a number of conditions, but it may cause mild side effects in some people. These include fatigue, appetite changes, diarrhea, and changes in the liver enzymes responsible for drug metabolism.
For those who have been exposed to HIV, or who are trying to conceive a child, CBD may have negative side effects. It’s recommended to avoid using CBD if you are in one of these categories.
It’s important to get the dose right to minimize your risk of side effects from CBD. If you always use the smallest dose that gives you relief, you will be less likely to experience side effects.
Because CBD can interfere with the metabolism of some drugs, it’s a good idea to check with your doctor before combining CBD with other medications.
Terpenes are the oils in various plants, such as basil and lavender, that give them their signature scents and flavors. Cannabis boasts over 100 different terpenes that vary from strain to strain. They differ from THC in that they don’t get you high, but, like CBD, are thought to have a variety of health benefits. For instance, limonene has a pleasant citrus aroma, and may also elevate your mood. Myrcene is an earthier terpene, which is believed to have a calming effect.
Terpenes: The Flavors of Cannabis Aromatherapy
Terpenes derived from other plants—that basil, for instance, or an orange essential oil—have long been one of many items in the chef’s arsenal, and thanks to their natural pungency, terpenes are now popping up more and more often in the culinary scene. Specifically, chefs are discovering cannabis terpenes as useful additives to food, cocktails, beer, and more.
Aaron Ziegler of Bull & Dragon is a Los Angeles-based chef who specializes in private dinners and events, and, on occasion, offers private cannabis-infused meals. He said he experiments with cannabis terpenes in the same way he might incorporate any other herb or plant, noting that chefs are trained to use their nose and tongue as a science lab, quickly sussing out how a particular item might be used. “It’s a lot like discovering any other unique ingredient, like a spice from Malaysia or Peru or something, where you haven’t used that smell or flavor profile before. It’s like, ‘let’s explore this,’ and ‘how many ways can I work this into my food?’” he said.
How 3 Pro Cannabis Chefs Think About Infused Cooking
Ziegler might use a controlled heat extraction method for a “cooked” quality, or a CO2 extraction, which can work with a clean flower that has been grown with absolutely no sprays or chemicals. Those latter terpenes “have this bright, wonderful flavor,” he said. “Some of them—in particular, some of the indicas I’ve found—can be spicy, [with a] really peppery note to them.”
For instance, he’s found success using the strain Green Crack, which contains the terpene myrcene, when making mozzarella cheese. “I use a CO2 extraction, so it’s the natural oil of the plant,” he said. “I bloomed that in lemon juice, and I used that as my culture to make mozzarella cheese. So now, I have this terpene and sativa-infused cheese that has this herbaceous mozzarella flavor. It’s really floral, and it works just like any other herb-infused cheese.”
Recipe: How to Make Cannabis-Infused Cheese
He’s also used the Grape Ape strain, along with lavender, to make an ice cream that he says tastes just like blueberry ice cream, despite the fact that there are no blueberries in it. Ziegler even sees potential in fresh, uncured flowers as a garnish on various dishes. “There’s no transfer of [THC] at that point; the body can’t digest it in that form,” he said. “To use [cannabis] in that sense is really fun, and that’s all about the terpenes.”
At Prank Bar in downtown Los Angeles, owner Dave Whitton first learned about terpenes via his brother-in-law, who opened one of Nevada’s earliest dispensaries. Prank Bar now uses them in cocktails, like the Mon Frere, with gin, orange bitters, and limonene terpenes. They also add them to three different house-made kombuchas, which are available on draft. Though Prank’s offerings contain no THC or CBD at this time, Whitton says his staff enjoys them primarily for the health benefits they seem to produce.
The Leafly Guide to Pairing Tea and Cannabis
He also said he’s noticed an elevated mood and increased energy since becoming a daily drinker of terpene kombuchas. Their house kombucha, for one, is made with mango, ginger, peach, and coconut with limonene terpenes added. “There’s a really sharp edge to the ginger without the terpenes, but when you put the terpenes on top, it creates a cover,” Whitton said. “It’s different from bitters. Bitters create a body underneath, but with terpenes, the oils hover on top and add this delicate softener to those edgier ingredients.”
Prank’s “Calm Booch” is a delicious blend of tart cherry, lavender, and myrcene, a terpene also found in mangoes that studies indicate may have a sedative effect; their “Cross Fizz,” a pineapple mint kombucha, incorporates limonene and pinene terpenes. “That pinene terpene is a bronchodilator, along with the anti-inflammatory [properties]. It’s great for breathing which is why we call it Cross Fizz. If you’re going to go work out, you’re going to get that boost,” Whitton said. “Not only are the flavonoids really fun to play with, but the health benefits [of terpenes] are extraordinary.” Whitton said that in the last six months, Prank has sold twice as much kombucha their most popular beer.
The Leafly Beer & Cannabis Flavor Pairing Guide
That isn’t to say you can’t pair beer and terpenes. It’s an avenue Prank is looking to explore in the near future, and it’s one that California-based Lagunitas Brewing Co. already has. In August, Lagunitas released SuperCritical, an IPA brewed with terpenes. Lagunitas Director of Communications Karen Hamilton says the beer has “a faint cannabis-ish aroma,” but is a still “smooth, flavorful IPA-style beer” that’s been getting a great response from their customers. The same has been true at a bar called Flore in San Francisco, where CBD beer is on draft, and CBD and terpenes add flavor and wellness benefits to cocktails and mocktails on the 4:20 Happy Hour menu.
“You can consider terpenes like a new spice in your spice rack,” says Hamilton. “It brings an interesting flavor to the beer that we have not used before.”